Diversified Development and Market Trends of Packaging Materials

The main packaging materials include glass, paper, aluminum, steel, plastic, and paper-plastic composite containers. Due to their own characteristics and advantages, they have all undergone significant development in recent years, showing a trend of diversified development.

Beverages: In the beverage market, plastic containers are used the most in most countries. From a global perspective, PET bottles account for more than 70% of the beverage market, and the proportion of PET bottles in carbonated beverage packaging in China is about 60%. Plastic containers have begun to enter the beer industry worldwide and are competing with glass bottles for market share.

Food cans: The food can, beverage, oil and chemical industries, and other related industries continue to develop. Some varieties can be replaced by other packaging materials, but some products can only be packaged in non-metallic materials. China’s deep processing of agricultural products and the export of canned foods have continued to increase, making tinplate an important market. The total output and export volume of the can industry have maintained a double-digit growth trend for many years. Canned mushrooms, asparagus, oranges, bamboo shoots, and other products are the most exported products in the world.

Beer: China is the world’s largest beer producer and mainly uses glass bottles. Metal cans (including aluminum and steel) account for only about 3%. From a global perspective, glass bottles account for 72%, metal cans account for 28%, and PET bottles account for 0.4%. Therefore, there is great potential for the development of metal canned beer. China’s two-piece aluminum cans began the development of metal cans, and the localization of aluminum alloy thin plates is also developing. In recent years, steel cans have developed rapidly.

Foreign insiders in the metal packaging industry have felt that tinplate packaging is facing increasingly severe competition and challenges from other packaging materials such as plastic and paper, and they need to make efforts to enhance shelf visual impact and convenience functions and improve product grades.

The Manufacturing Process and Material Requirements for High-Quality Aluminum Cans

Can manufacturers have strict requirements for the quality of aluminum material. Not only must the internal quality be good with optimized chemical composition, low gas and slag content, but also the material must have good deep drawing performance, low ear-making rate (material anisotropy), and small thickness tolerances, good plate shape, and excellent surface quality.

The Manufacturing Process and Material Requirements for High-Quality Aluminum Cans

The production of aluminum cans involves over 40 processes, with the primary processes related to the performance of the aluminum strip being blanking, cup drawing, thinning and deep drawing, edge trimming, washing, external printing, internal coating, drying, necking, and flanging. The aluminum strip must have appropriate strength and good deep drawing formability to ensure smooth continuous punching, thinning and deep drawing, and to have the appropriate yield strength after baking. During the production process of the can body, the first step is to punch the 0.25-0.30mm thick strip into round blanks with a diameter of approximately 138mm, then draw two cups by deep drawing with a diameter reduction rate of more than 50%, followed by three rounds of thinning and deep drawing, reducing the wall thickness to 0.08-0.10mm with a stretching thinning rate exceeding 65%. Since the thinning and deep drawing process puts the material in an extremely low ductility state, even tiny inclusions can cause cracking or folding. Afterwards, it is required to ensure no fractures occur during edge trimming, necking, and flanging, and the material must have good plasticity. After several rounds of baking, the axial pressure resistance and bottom pressure resistance of the can body must be ensured, with the axial pressure resistance required to be 1.35kN and the bottom pressure resistance strength of 630kPa, to ensure smooth canning and storage. Therefore, the comprehensive performance of the aluminum strip used for the can body has strict requirements, including a tensile strength of 270-310MPa, a yield strength of 250-300MPa, an elongation rate greater than 3%, and an ear-making rate less than 2%. The surface of the strip must be smooth and uniform, without obvious corrugations, oxidation, or visible defects such as inclusions, pressure marks, or spots. The thickness of the strip must be uniform, with a thickness difference within 0.005mm.

Modern cover production lines use coils, with cup punching machines having 20-24 stations and material widths of 1500-1550mm. Block sheet production lines use sheet material with widths of 850-970mm. The thickness of the cover material is 0.27mm. Currently, all the pre-coated cover material used in China is imported. Cover production first involves separately producing the base and pull-tab on two production lines, then combining them to form a composite cover. The cover material has various width specifications and even more thickness specifications, including 0.22-0.315mm, such as 0.23mm, 0.25mm, 0.27mm, 0.28mm, and 0.30mm. There are many cover manufacturing companies in China, estimated to be around 50, with production capacity exceeding 40 billion per year.

Characters of Food in Metal Canning Supplies Container

Canned food generally undergoes initial treatment and cooking of raw materials, so it is more convenient to eat.

The canned food is exhausted and sealed to isolate the food in the can from the outside world, avoiding the influence of external conditions on the food, preventing the action of microorganisms in the air, and facilitating long-term storage of food.

After the cans are sealed, they are sterilized, so that the microorganisms that originally existed in the food will be killed or degenerated and will not reproduce, thereby ensuring that the food in the cans can be stored for a long time.

Therefore, in theory, cans can be stored indefinitely without spoilage. However, due to various reasons, such as corrosion resistance of the container, oxidation problems, and various biochemical changes, the food in the can gradually changes and eventually loses its edible value, so the shelf life of canned food has a certain period of time. Therefore, for various cans, according to the nature of the contents, a certain shelf life is generally stipulated. The so-called shelf life is from the date of production, under normal transportation and storage conditions, within the shelf life, the canned food should not be fat, not spoiled, and canned. The inner coating film does not fall off in flakes, the iron sulfide does not pollute the content, and the heavy metal does not exceed the regulations. The responsibility for the rust problem should be ascertained, and the factory is responsible for the rust caused by production.

In addition, in order to ensure the quality and nutritional value of canned food, the existing sterilization temperature and time cannot achieve absolute sterility (no There are microorganisms that continue to survive), but only commercial sterility (canned food after moderate heat sterilization does not contain pathogenic microorganisms, nor does it contain non-pathogenic microorganisms that can reproduce in it at normal temperatures , this state is called commercial sterility).

Raw Materials for Metal Cans and Containers – China Tinplate Introduction

Electroplated tin-plated steel sheet (hereinafter referred to as tinplate or tinplate) is widely used because of its suitable strength, excellent weldability and punchability of the substrate, good corrosion resistance of the surface coating, and easy coating and printing. Food packaging is also used in the packaging of sprays, chemicals, paints and other items in various forms, as well as the manufacture of various utensils.

Electroplated tinplate developed on the basis of hot-dip tinplate has a production history of more than 70 years. The world’s tinning production lines and total output are basically stable, but developing countries have built or are building some tinning lines one after another, especially in China. In terms of varieties, secondary cold-rolled tinplate and chrome-plated sheet (TFS) have been greatly developed, and Japan’s coated iron (TFS surface covered with a layer of plastic film) has developed rapidly in recent years. The production and consumption of tinplate in developing countries are increasing rapidly, while developed countries are characterized by the development of new cans, exquisite printing, and environmental protection.

The development of China’s tinplate started relatively late, and it mainly relied on imports for a long time, with a self-sufficiency rate of less than 50%. In the 1990s, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong successively built factories in the mainland, which greatly increased the production capacity of tinplate. Especially in 1998, the two tinning production lines of Baosteel were put into operation, which raised the self-sufficiency rate of China’s tinplate to about 70%, and high-difficulty products such as K plate and DI material were also based on domestic supply, which changed the K plate required in my country. (high corrosion-resistant tinplate used in fruit cans in plain iron state) long-term dependence on imports, the production of DI material (tinplate for two-piece beverage cans) makes Baosteel one of the few steel plants in the world that can produce this product ranks.

Metal packaging has experienced more than 20 years of development in China’s reform and opening up, and has now formed a complete metal package including iron printing, can making (two-piece cans, three-piece cans), aerosol cans, various bottle caps, and steel drums. The packaging industry system has become one of the important categories of China’s packaging industry.

With the rapid development of China’s economy, the total consumption of tinplate required for metal packaging is growing at a rate of about 10% per year. It can be expected that the demand for tinplate in China will continue to develop at a relatively high speed in the next few years.

Metal Can Container Raw Material – Performance of Tinplate

1. Material properties

(1) The degree of quenching and tempering (expressed by surface Rockwell hardness HR30T) represents the mechanical properties of the material with the degree of quenching and tempering. Under the same manufacturing conditions, it better represents the material properties, but in the annealing process (continuous annealing or bell type When annealing) is different, the same tempering degree shows different strength and elongation. The thickness of the substrate is different, and due to the anvil effect, there is a certain difference between the measured value and the actual value. Due to aging reasons, the tempering degree will also change.

(2) Formability In addition to the harsh deformation of the material during drawing and other processing, general can and lid processing can withstand tinplate. Uniform performance is required, and the grain size of the material is suitable (tin plate is generally 7#~9#). With the acceleration of can making speed, it is required to have small fluctuations in material properties, small fluctuations in thickness, and good plate shape, otherwise defects such as cans will be easily caused. In order to prevent ridges in can making and tensile strain during stamping, the strain aging of the tinplate is required to be small.

(3) Direction In addition to the strict requirements for anisotropy of DI materials, the requirements for direction are not too strict in general can-making processing, but for secondary cold-rolled tinplate, the longitudinal and transverse properties differ greatly (horizontal sb Large, low elongation), the circumferential direction of the can body is required to be consistent with the rolling direction. When the primary cold-rolled tinplate has tensile deformation of expanding diameter or changing from circle to square, it is better to make the circumferential direction of the can body consistent with the rolling direction, which can reduce the occurrence of defects such as cracking and local deformation.

2. Size and shape

Thickness: The thickness tolerance is required to be small, the standard is 8.5% of soil, and the actual requirement is much lower.
Width and length: the tolerance is required to be small, the standard is -0/ten 3mm, and the actual requirement is much smaller.
Flatness: large warping, middle waves, and side waves will affect iron printing and can making, and the requirement is within 3mm.
Pinhole: During the production process of tinplate, it is detected by a pinhole instrument. The leak detection device on the canning line is also very important to avoid leaking cans from the factory.

3. Surface properties

(1) Surface roughness The surface roughness of the substrate is obtained when it is flat. In addition to having an important impact on the drawing process of DI materials, the roughness is appropriately rough, which can improve the adhesion of the tin-plated layer and the painted layer; Increased roughness, not easy to scratch, scrape.

(2) Tin coating amount The thicker the tin coating, the less pores and the higher the corrosion resistance. In order to study how to obtain a tin coating with good continuity and high corrosion resistance with a relatively small amount of tin plating, in addition to requiring the surface of the original plate to be clean, the electroplating process must be well controlled, and the process parameters must be stable to reduce fluctuations.

(3) The tin-iron alloy layer is obtained by reflowing to obtain the required tin-iron alloy layer, which improves the adhesion of the tin-plated layer and improves the corrosion resistance of the tin-plated plate. The K plate requires a higher alloy layer; the alloy layer is hard and brittle , too thick will reduce the welding performance, but also easy to fall off. Efforts should be made to control the continuity and density of the alloy layer to produce tinplate with high corrosion resistance. The key to the reflow process is to complete the heating according to the desired reflow heating curve. The combination of resistance heating and induction heating provides good conditions for the control of reflow.

(4) The passivation layer is obtained by chromate passivation treatment, which can effectively inhibit the oxidation of tin, improve the finish and corrosion resistance of the tinplate, and effectively prevent the generation of sulfur spots. According to the purpose and different contents, different passivation layers are required, such as orange, cherry, pineapple, pear and peach and other food cans and 18L bamboo shoot cans, which require high power for passivation.

(5) The oiled surface is coated with a layer of DOS oil, which acts as a lubricant to prevent scratches, abrasions, abrasions, and also has an anti-rust effect. However, when the oil is applied too much or the oil is uneven, it is easy to cause the “eye hole” defect of the coating film.

4. Corrosion resistance

(1) Corrosion resistance of plain canned foods such as oranges and pineapples, use plain iron to maintain the flavor and color of the food in the can. Most of these foods are acidic and require canned food to have high corrosion resistance. The main factors related to corrosion are the tinplate material for canning, the type of content, canning conditions, storage conditions, etc. From the perspective of tinplate materials, in an acidic environment without oxygen, tin is firstly corroded and dissolved to protect iron. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of tinplate, strict production control is required, and high corrosion-resistant plates (ie K plates) are provided to users.

(2) Corrosion resistance of painted cans In order to reduce costs and save precious tin resources, people no longer use the method of increasing tin plating to improve corrosion resistance, but use lower tin plating to paint to improve cans The life span; painting can also prevent sulfur-containing protein foods from sulfide blackening; flavors such as beverages and beer are sensitive to the presence of a small amount of dissolved metals, so painted cans are used. It is necessary to ensure that the coating film is complete and free of defects. Cans no longer rely on the dissolution of tin to prevent corrosion of the substrate, and the paint layer has become the first line of defense. Some people have done experiments: the shelf life of cans with defective coatings is much shorter than that of unpainted ones, so it is necessary to prevent scratches on the coatings, damage to the flanging parts, or peeling off of the coatings produced during the stamping process of the can lids, etc. . In order to ensure the quality of the coating film, it is sometimes painted multiple times; for strong acid beverages, it must be sprayed inside after the can is made to prevent rapid corrosion and even leaking cans.

5. Paintability

Most tinplates need to be coated, and the quality of the coating will directly affect the corrosion resistance of the metal cans; some also need to be color printed. Finishing properties include wettability and adhesion.

(1) The wetting paint is not wet or has holes, and the corrosion is concentrated at the defect site. Compared with the non-painting, pitting corrosion is more likely to occur. There are many factors affecting wettability, including coating, finishing conditions and tinplate.

The main causes caused by tinplate are as follows:
① Excessive oiling or uneven oiling.
② There is foreign matter attached to the surface. Machine oil, silicone resin, fine powder, moisture, etc.
③Surface state, aging, storage temperature, etc.

(2) Adhesion When the adhesion of the coating film is not good, cracks, peeling or peeling will occur during processing deformation.
Adhesion is also related to paint and painting process, and the factors related to tinplate are as follows:
①Through passivation treatment, the oxidation of tin is inhibited and the adhesion of paint is improved. But the storage time and the number of repeated heating and baking
affect adhesion.
② Influence of surface roughness.
③ The influence of tin layer thickness.

6. Weldability

The body of the three-piece tank and various barrels must be welded, so the quality of the weld seam is very important. It is required to adjust the welding parameters reasonably to obtain a smooth, uniform weld seam to prevent concentrated corrosion and even tank leakage. Most of the substrates of tinplate are low-carbon aluminum-killed steel, and the welding performance is good. With the acceleration of can making speed, stable welding performance is required. In terms of tinplate, the relevant performance must be guaranteed, mainly in the following points:

①The steel is pure, the thickness and dimension deviation is small, and the hardness is uniform.
②The surface is clean, free of dust and garbage.
③Appropriate surface roughness.
④The lower the tin plating layer, the better the soldering performance. When the tin plating layer is low, control the tin-iron alloy layer to ensure a certain pure tin layer.
⑤ The welding parameters of the tin-plated plate with IF steel as the substrate should be carefully controlled.

More: Jiujiang Yixin Technology Co., Ltd. Provides Good Quality Tin Can Machinery To Clients In Domestic And Overseas.

Oversupply Domestic Two-piece Aluminum Cans Hit a New Low

According to a research report released by China Securities Research and Development Department in May this year, the output of two-piece aluminum cans in my country will reach 38 billion cans in 2021. According to the annual growth rate of 8%, it is estimated that the annual output in 2022 will reach 41 billion. Can.

The report pointed out that due to severe overcapacity and an extremely fierce price war, the unit price of two aluminum cans has been declining in the past few years, and will drop to a record low in 2022.

The report believes that with the intensification of industry consolidation, it will help to improve the existing competition pattern in the metal packaging industry, and the price of two-piece cans can be expected to bottom out.

However, the process may seem a little long now. According to the “Securities Times” report, Baosteel Packaging recently stated on the interactive platform that the current metal packaging two-piece can industry is still in a situation of oversupply, fierce competition in the industry, and the unit price of products has not been fundamentally reversed, and steel, aluminum, etc. The large fluctuations in commodity prices have brought greater pressure to the company’s operations. The company has made a lot of improvement measures from the four aspects of the sales side, the purchasing side, the manufacturing side and the expense side to ensure the company’s operating performance.

Global Aluminum Aerosol Can Production Bucked the Trend and Increased to 5.5 Billion

Bonus points for functionality and sustainability, global aluminum aerosol can production bucked the trend and increased to 5.5 billion.

Economic and political issues did not adversely affect the 2016 performance of the International Association of Aluminum Aerosol Can Manufacturers (Aerobal) corporate members. According to a new report by the association, the global aluminum aerosol can industry achieved 3% growth in 2016, with production reaching 5.5 billion units.

Asia’s growth rate leads the world Asia’s fastest-growing market, with a growth rate of nearly 10%. This was followed by North and Central and South America, where sales increased by about 5% year-on-year, an above-average growth rate. In addition, even the saturated European market is stable.

Aerobal’s secretary-general, Gregor Spengler, said Asia’s per capita consumption of aluminium aerosol cans is well below the global average, so the region has considerable growth potential.

Personal care products account for about 80% of cans, with deodorants and fragrances being the two main driving sectors. In terms of product types and application areas, deodorants and fragrances are the two main driving application sectors for the growth of aluminum aerosol cans. They are still warmly welcomed around the world, opening up new growth potential. The two contributed more than 50% to the consumption of aluminum aerosol cans in 2016.

Other important products and applications in the cosmetic sector include hair sprays, hair styling mousses, and shaving creams. Overall, the personal care segment accounts for about 80% of total aerosol can production. About 10% of aluminium aerosol cans are used in industrial and household products, and 5% go into pharmaceuticals.

In terms of products and applications, Gregor sees growth in markets such as foaming body washes and dry shampoos, as well as broad application areas for sunscreen products.

Outstanding functionality will make aluminum aerosol cans gain in the field of pharmaceuticals. “In addition, there are obvious growth opportunities in the pharmaceutical field in the future.” Spengler believes that in the future, it will mainly rely on the outstanding functionality of aluminum aerosol cans – mainly reflected in the excellent product protection and maximum safety of aluminum over other materials. , to ensure market growth. Especially in the pharmaceutical industry, the excellent hygiene standards of aerosol cans and the accuracy of dosage are unmatched by other packaging solutions.

Sustainability benefits make aluminum aerosol cans impeccable. Sustainability and environmental characteristics will continue to play an important role in the packaging market, he said, and aluminium aerosol cans are particularly impeccable in this regard.

“Customers and consumers are increasingly recognizing that aluminum is a sustainable material that can be recycled indefinitely without any loss of quality. Among the many functional benefits of aluminum aerosol cans, this is one of the most significant, high resource utilization Let it make a valuable contribution to the future of the planet,” he added.

125 Years of Continuous Innovation Crown Warm Ink Makes People “enjoy” Drinks

Canning Technology
Figure 1 Crown’s diverse metal packaging technologies and products are widely used in the food, beverage, personal care, homeware and luxury industries.

This year, Crown Holdings, one of the three giants in the world’s metal packaging industry, will celebrate its 125th anniversary.

The road to innovation never ends

According to the official website of the Crown Company, its origin can be traced back to the invention of the bottle cap, also known as the crown cap. In 1892, as carbonated soft drinks and beer were gaining popularity, William Painter, in order to improve their packaging, or even to enhance the consumer experience, invented the crown cap and created the Crown Cork & Seal Company. After 125 years of development, it has now become one of the world-class packaging giants with factories in mature and emerging markets. Its diverse metal packaging technologies and products are widely used in the food, beverage, personal care, household and luxury industries.

The depth and breadth of industry applications give Crown a unique perspective on the market, and can apply knowledge and innovation to different product fields, bringing great value to customers while also producing some truly breakthrough products and technologies. For example, it developed the world’s first full opening lid, the 360 End®, which combines the strength and performance of a beverage lid with the convenience of an easy-open lid for food cans.

Canning Technology
Figure 2 360 End® combines the strength and performance of a beverage lid with the convenience of an easy-open food can lid.

For a long time, Crown has been committed to responding to the evolving requirements of consumers through product innovation and service innovation, improving consumer experience, and helping users build brands regionally and globally. In the future, it will continue to push brand users to push the limits of creativity and find ways to build close relationships with consumers.

Reveal’s Warm Ink Makes Drinking Fun

Canning Technology
Figure 3 Reveal temperature sensitive ink can be displayed by changing the pattern or text before, during and after drinking.

At the end of 2016, Crown announced that its newly developed Reveal temperature sensitive ink can be displayed by changing patterns or characters before, during and after drinking, which can enhance consumers’ love for the brand.

The ink is the result of a collaboration between the design team at Crown Beverage Can Europe and the Middle East and CTI. Since the ink changes with the temperature, consumers can see the relevant display information after drinking the cold contents.

According to Crown, when the cold contents are consumed, specially developed ink can change the graphics and text of the can, which is interesting.

China’s New National Standard Metal Container Cans Safety Standards Will Be Higher

Recently, on the official website of the National Standardization Administration of China, the new version of “General Technical Requirements for Canned Food Metal Containers” is soliciting comments. The new version puts forward new requirements for the appearance of metal cans and the integrity of the inner film coating.

Those with poor appearance are considered substandard products

For example, in terms of appearance, tin cans are required to meet the characteristics of beauty and no damage. In the production process, there are many situations such as large slump, jump seal, incomplete curling, sharp edge and quick mouth, etc., will be regarded as unqualified products.

Higher requirements for the integrity of the inner film coating of metal cans

Not only in terms of appearance, but also for metal inner film coating, there are many requirements. For example, by adding 2% sodium sulfate solution to the metal can, the integrity of the can coating film is tested. In addition, acid resistance, sulfur resistance and salt resistance tests are carried out. For the performance of the tank sealant, there are also strict standards. The tank is put into a glass container filled with water for testing to observe the tightness.

Overall, the new national standard “General Technical Requirements for Canned Food Metal Containers” puts forward more stringent requirements for metal canned food containers. Although the new national standard is a recommended standard, some large canned food manufacturers generally This implementation will be gradually regulated according to the new national standard. Therefore, it is certain that the safety of canned food will be improved in the future, and the common people will be more assured to eat.

More: Can Making Machine

Bpa-free Epoxy Coating Valpure® V70: Safety Meets High Performance

Valspar, the world’s leading supplier of packaging coatings, won the Metpack 2017 Innovation Award Bronze Award for its innovative product, valPure® V70, an innovative BPA-free epoxy coating series that has been successfully developed over several years.

Valpure is a family brand of products that Valspar calls “the next generation of high-performance BPA-free coatings”, covering three categories: BPA-free polyester coatings, BPA-free acrylic coatings, and BPA-free epoxy coatings. In February of this year, the WeChat public account “Tan Yan Gai Yu” reported that Seneca Foods, a North American canned fruit and vegetable leader, printed Valspar’s BPA-free coating on the front of the label of its popular Libby’s® brand of canned vegetables. The logo of the technology valPure® has been confirmed by the author and Valspar Company that this paint is one of the BPA-free polyester paints.

valPure® V70: BPA-free with the performance benefits of epoxy coatings. Valspar says that as the company’s latest BPA-free solution for all lightweight metal packaging, valPure® V70, a BPA-free epoxy coating series, represents the future of epoxy coatings for lightweight metal packaging: not only epoxy coatings in Advantages in food safety and protection, and provide brand users and consumers with the choice they need.

Epoxy coatings have long been used for their benefits in performance, manufacturability and brand protection. valPure® V70 is a series of coatings developed based on the bisphenol A-free epoxy resin platform, which has the performance advantages of traditional epoxy coatings that users are accustomed to.

Valspar says the valPure® V70 series has undergone more stringent development and safety testing standards than international regulatory bodies. The company’s product development framework, Safety by Design, is modeled on the safety assessment of preclinical development of pharmaceutical products, emphasizing the safety of food packaging and compliance with international regulations, and providing unprecedented and promising coatings solution.

The valPure V70 range, which combines safety and performance benefits, is said to have been approved by international regulatory agencies for use in food, beverage and household products, suitable for adults and children alike.

It is reported that the valPure V70 has been used in the North American market such as the United States, and is now being tested in the European market.